## Monday, June 10, 2019

### Preprint servers. Why?

 Recent preprints from researchersin the BiGCaT group.
Henry Rzepa asked us the following recently: ChemRxiv. Why? I strongly recommend reading his pondering. I agree with a number of them, particularly the point about the following. To follow the narrative of the joke: "how many article versions does it take for knowledge to disseminate?", the answer sometimes seems to be: "at least three, to make enough money of the system".

Now, I tend to believe preprints are a good thing (see also my interview in Preprintservers, doen of niet?, C2W, 2016. PDF): release soon, release often has served open science well. In that sense, a preprint can be like that: an form of open notebook science.

However, just as we suffer from data dumps for open source software, we see exactly the same with (open access) publishing now. Is the paper ready to be submitted for peer review, oh, let's quickly put it on a preprint server. A very much agree with Henry that the last thing we are waiting for is a third version of a published article. This is what worries me a great deal in the "green Open Access" discussion.

But it can be different. For example, people in our BiGCaT group actually are building up a routine of posting papers just before conferences. Then the oral presentation gives a laymens outline of the work, and if people want to really understand what the work is about, they can read the full paper. Of course, with the note that a manuscript may actually not be sufficient for that, so the preprint should support open science.

But importantly, a preprint is not a replacement for an proper CC-BY-licensed version of record (VoR). If the consensus that that is what preprints are about, then I'm no longer a fan.

## Tuesday, May 21, 2019

### Scholia: an open source platform around open data

Some 2.5 years ago Finn Nielsen started Scholia. I have been blogging about it a few times, and thanks to Finn, Lane Rasberry, and Daniel Mietchen, we were awarded a grant by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to continue working on it (grant: G-2019-11458). I'll tweet more about how it fits the infrastructure to support our core research lines, but for now just want to mention that we published the full proposal in RIO Journal.

Oh, just as a teaser and clickbait, here's one of the use cases. dissemination of knowledge of metabolites and chemicals in general (full poster):

## Saturday, May 18, 2019

### LIPID MAPS: mass spectra and species annotation from Wikidata

 Part of the LIPID MAPS classificationscheme in Wikidata (try it).
A bit over a week I attended LIPID MAPS Working Group meeting in Cambridge, as I have become member of the Working Group 2: Tools and Technical Committee in autumn. That followed a fruitful effort by Eoin Fahy to make several LIPID MAPS pathways available in WikiPathways (see this Lipids Portal), e.g. the Omega-3/Omega-6 FA synthesis pathway. It was a great pleasure to attend the meeting, meet everyone, and I learned a lot about the internals of the LIPID MAPS project.

I showed them how we contribute to WikiPathways, particularly in the area of lipids. Denise Slenter and I have been working on having more identifier mappings in Wikidata, among which the lipids. Some results of that work was part of this presentation. One of the nice things about Wikidata is that you can make live Venn diagrams, e.g. compounds in LIPID MAPS for which Wikidata also has a statement about which species it is found in (try it):

SELECT ?lipid ?lipidLabel ?lmid ?species ?speciesLabel
?source ?sourceLabel ?doi
WHERE {
?lipid wdt:P2063 ?lmid ;
p:P703 ?speciesStatement .
OPTIONAL {
?speciesStatement prov:wasDerivedFrom/pr:P248 ?source ;
ps:P703 ?species .
OPTIONAL { ?source wdt:P356 ?doi }
}
SERVICE wikibase:label {
bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "[AUTO_LANGUAGE],en".
}
}


A second query searches lipids for which also mass spectra are found in MassBank (try it):

SELECT
?lipid ?lipidLabel ?lmid
(GROUP_CONCAT(DISTINCT ?massbanks) as ?massbank)
WHERE {
?lipid wdt:P2063 ?lmid ;
wdt:P6689 ?massbanks .
SERVICE wikibase:label {
bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "[AUTO_LANGUAGE],en".
}
} GROUP BY ?lipid ?lipidLabel ?lmid


Enjoy!

## Saturday, May 04, 2019

### Wikidata, CompTox Chemistry Dashboard, and the DSSTOX substance identifier

The US EPA published a paper recently about the CompTox Chemistry Dashboard (doi:10.1186/s13321-017-0247-6). Some time ago I worked with Antony Williams and we proposed a matching Wikidata identifier. When it was accepted, I used a InChIKey-DSSTOX identifier mapping data sets by Antony (doi:10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.3578313.V1) to populate Wikidata with links. Overtime, when more InChIKeys were found in Wikidata, I would use this script to add additional mappings. That resulted in this growth graph:

 Source: Wikidata.
Now, about a week ago Antony informed me he worked with someone of Wikipedia to have the DSSTOX automatically show up in the ChemBox, which I find awesome. It's cool to see your work on about 38 thousand (!) Wikipedia pages :)
 Part of the ChemBox of perfluorooctanoic acid.
(I'm making the assumption that all 38 thousand Wikidata pages for chemicals have Wikipedia equivalents, which may be a false assumption.)

## Wednesday, April 24, 2019

### Open Notebook Science: the version control approach

Jean-Claude Bradley pitched the idea of Open Notebook Science, or Open-notebook science as the proper spelling seems to be. I have used notebooks a lot, but ever since I went digital, the use went down. During my PhD studies I still extensively used them. But in the process, I changed my approach. Influenced by open source practices.

After all, open source has had a long history of version control, where commit messages explain the reason why some change was made. And people that ever looked at my commits, know that my commits tend to be small. And know that my messages describe the purpose of some commit.

That is my open notebook. It is essential to record why a certain change was made and what exactly that change was. Trivial with version control. Mind you, version control is not limited to source code. Using the right approaches, data and writing can easily be tracked with version control too. Just check, for example, my GitHub profile. You will find journal articles been written, data collected, just as if they were equal research outputs (they are).

Another great example of version control for writing and data is provided by Wikipedia and Wikidata. Now, some changes I found hard to track there: when I asked the SourceMD tool (great work by Magnus Manske) to create items for books, I want to see the changes made. The tool did link to the revisions made at some point, but this service integration seems to break down now and then. Then I realized that I could use the EditGroups tool directly (HT to who wrote that), and found this specific page for my edits, which includes not just those via SourceMD but also all edits I made via QuickStatements (also by Magnus):

If only I could give a "commit message" which each QuickStatements job I run. Can I?

## Saturday, April 13, 2019

### Bioclipse on the command line

 Screenshot of Bioclipse 2.
Over the past seven years there has been a lot of chemistry interoperability work I have done using Bioclipse (doi:10.1186/1471-2105-8-59, doi:10.1186/1471-2105-10-397). The code is based on Eclipse, which gives a great GUI experience, but also turned out hard to maintain. Possibly, that was because of a second neat feature, that you could plugin libraries into the Python, JavaScript, and Groovy scripting environment which allows people to automate things in Bioclipse. Over the course of time, so many libraries have been integrated, making so many scientific toolkit available at the tip of your fingers. Of the three programming languages, I have used Groovy the most, being close to the Java language, but with with a lot of syntactic goodies.

In fact, I have blogged about the scripts I wrote on my occasions and in 2015 I wrote up a few blog posts on how to install new extensions:

But publishing and installing new Bioclipse 2.6.2 extension remained complicated (installing Bioclipse itself it quite trivial). And that while the scripts are so useful, and I need others to start using them. I do not scale. Second, when I cite these scripts, they were too hard to use by reviewers and readers. To get some idea of a small subset of the functionality, read our book A lot of Bioclipse Scripting Language examples.

So, last x-mas I set out with the wish to be able to have others much more easily run my scripts and, second, be able to run them from the command line. To achieve that, installing and particularly publishing Bioclipse extensions had to become much easier. Maybe as easy of Groovy just Grab-bing the dependencies from the script itself. So, Bioclipse available from Maven Central, or so.

Of course, this approach would likely loose a lot of wonderful functionality, like the graphical UX, the plugin system, the language injection, and likely more. So, one important requirements was that any script using the command line must be identical to the script in Bioclipse itself. Well, with a few permissible exceptions: we are allowed to inject the Bioclipse managers manually.

Well, of course, I would not have been blogging this had I not succeeded to reach these goals in some way. Indeed, following up from a wonderful metaRbolomics meeting organized by de.NBI (~ ELIXIR Germany), and the powerful plans discussed with Emma Schymanski (and some ongoing work of persistent toxicants), and, fairly, actually not drowning in failed deadlines, just regularly way behind deadlines, and since I have a research line to run, I dived into hackmode. In some 14 hours, mostly in the evening hours of the past two days, I got a proof of principle up and running. The name is a reference to all the wonderful linguistic fun we had when I worked in Uppsala, thanks to Carl Mäsak, e.g. discussing the term Bioclipse Scripting Language and Perl 6.

It is not available yet from Maven Central, so there is a manual mvn clean install involved at this moment, but after that (the command installs it in your local Maven repository which will be recognized by Groovy), you can get started with something like (I marked in blue to extra sugar needed on the command line; the black code runs as is in Bioclipse 2.6.2):

@Grab(
group='net.bioclipse.managers',
module='bioclipse-cdk',
version='0.0.1-SNAPSHOT'
)

workspaceRoot = "."
def cdk = new net.bioclipse.managers.CDKManager(workspaceRoot);

list = cdk.createMoleculeList()
println list
println cdk.fromSMILES("COC")

What now?
In the future, once it is available on Maven Central, you will be able to skip the local install command, and @Grab will just fetch things from that online repository. I will be tagging version 0.0.1 today, as I got my important script running that takes one or more SMILES strings, checks Wikidata, and makes QuickStatements to add missing chemicals. The first time you've (maybe) seen that, was three years ago, in this blog post.

You may wonder: why?? I asked myself the same thing, but there are a few things over the past 24 hours that I could answer and which may sketch where this is going:

1. that BSL book can actually show running the code and show the output in the book, just like with my CDK book;
2. maybe we can use Bioclipse managers in Nextflow;
3. Bioclipse offers interoperability layers, allowing me to pass a chemical structure from one Java library to another (e.g. from the CDK to Jmol to JOELib);
4. it allows me to update library versions without having to rebuild a full new Bioclipse stack (I'm already technically unable, let alone timewise unable);
5. I can start sharing Bioclipse scripts with articles that people can actually run; and,
6. all scripts are compatible, and all extensions I make can be easily copied into the main Bioclipse repository, if there ever will be a next major Bioclipse version (seems unlike now).

Now, it's just being patient and migrating manager by manager. It may be possible to use the the existing manager code, but that comes with so much language injection, that I decided to just take advantage of Open Science and just copy/paste the code. Most of the code is the same, minus progress monitors, and replacing Eclipse IFile code with regular Java code. But there are tons of managers, and reaching even 50% coverage will take, at the speed I can offer, months. Therefore, I'll focus on scripts I share with others, focus on reuse and reproducibility.

More soon!

## Sunday, April 07, 2019

### History of the term Open Science #1: the early days

 Screenshot of the Open Science History groupon CiteULike.
Open Science has been around for some time. Before Copyright became a thing, knowledge dissemination was mostly limited by how easy you could get knowledge from one place to another. The introduction of Copyright changed this. No longer the question was how to get people to know the new knowledge to how to get people to pay for new knowledge. One misconception, for example, is that publishing is a free market. Yes, you can argue that you can publish anywhere you like (theoretically, at least, but reality says otherwise), but the monopoly is in getting access: for every new fact (and republishing the same fact is a faux pas), there is exactly one provider of that fact.

Slowly this is changing, but only slowly. What this really needs, is open licenses, just like open source licenses. Licenses that allow fixing typos, allow resharing with your students, etc.

But contrary to what has been prevalent in the Plan S discussion, these ideas are not new. And people have been trying Open Science for more than two decades already.

I have been trying to dig up the oldest references (ongoing effort) of the term Open Science (in the current meaning), and had a CiteULike group for that. But CiteULike is shutting down, so I will blog the references I found, and add some context.

A first article to mention is this 1998 article that mentions Open Science: Common Agency Contracting and the Emergence of "Open Science" Institutions The American Economic Review, Vol. 88, No. 2. (May 1998), pp. 15-21 by Paul A. David. Worth reading, but does require reading some of the cited literature.

The follow two magazine articles took the term Open Science to a wider public, and in reply to a conference held at Brookhaven National Laboratory:

I would also like to note that the openscience.org website by Dan Gezelter went online in the late nineties already, which I have used in various of my source code projects, and, of course, also has been used by the Chemistry Development Kit from the start.

## Wednesday, April 03, 2019

### BioSchemas CreativeWork annotation in Bioconductor Vignettes

Since the EU BioHackathon in Paris last year, I've picked up Bioschemas stuff more extensively, to help the ELIXIR Metabolomics and Toxicology (in development) communities getting their stuff more FAIR. We could annotate training material already (see this ELIXIR NL post), but big boon was annotation of vignettes on Bioconductor. Over the past 2-3 months I have been exploring this, and on Monday at the #metaRbolomics meeting in Wittenberg, with a room full or R users, I got the right pointers to a promising lead.

So, because the vignettes are generated differently than Markdown on GitHub, I had to find the right hooks. In the end, I found these in one vignette adding a Google Analytics tracker in the header of the file. Bingo!

 Screenshot of Google's Structured Data Testing Tool.
So, here's how to do it. The R package set up allows adding custom HTML to the generated HTML, either in the header and at the start or end of the body. I went for the header. But I had to wait two days for the BioConductor website to make a new BridgeDbR package binary (1st day), and for it to update the website (2nd day).

The HTML snippet (saved as bioschemas.html) to add is basically a <script> element with a fragment of JSON-LD:

<script type="application/ld+json">
{
"@context":"http://schema.org/",
"@type":"CreativeWork",
"about":"This tutorial describes how to use the BridgeDbR package for identifier mapping.",
"audience":[
"http://edamontology.org/topic_3070",
"http://edamontology.org/topic_3314"
],
"genre":[
"http://edamontology.org/topic_0605",
"http://edamontology.org/operation_3282",
"http://edamontology.org/data_1025",
"http://edamontology.org/data_0982"
],
"name":"BridgeDbR Tutorial",
"author":[{
"@type":"Person",
"name":"Egon Willighagen",
"identifier":"0000-0001-7542-0286"
}],
"difficultyLevel": "beginner",
"keywords":"ELIXIR RIR, BridgeDb",
"url":[
"https://bioconductor.org/packages/devel/bioc/vignettes/BridgeDbR/inst/doc/tutorial.html"
],
"version":"1.17.4"
}
</script>


The other half of the story is to instruct the HTML generation pipeline to add it, which is done with this bit of YAML in your Markdown file (part of it you should already have):

output:
BiocStyle::html_document:
toc_float: true
includes:


Check the full folder here.

## Saturday, March 30, 2019

### What metabolites are found in which species? Nanopublications from Wikidata

In December I reported about Groovy code to create nanopublications. This has been running for some time now, extracting nanopubs that assert that some metabolite is found in some species. I send the resulting nanopubs to Tobias Kuhn, to populate his Growing Resource of Provenance-Centric Scientific Linked Data (doi:10.1109/eScience.2018.00024, PDF).

Each data set comes with an index pointing to the individual nanopubs, and that looks like this:

I wonder what options I have to to archive the full set up nanopublications on Figshare or Zenodo, and see that DOI show up here...

## Tuesday, March 05, 2019

### New paper: "Beyond Pathway Analysis: Identification of Active Subnetworks in Rett Syndrome"

 Figure 4 of the article.
Ryan Miller and Friederike Ehrhart worked together in this paper on furthering our understanding of the Rett syndrome  (doi:10.3389/fgene.2019.00059). They looked at the following: our biological pathways are social constructs that help us think and talk about the biology in our body (and other animals, plants, etc, of course). What if we ignore the boundaries of those constructs, can we learn the pathways? Turns out, sort of.

Using PathVisio, WikiPathways, and Cytoscape's jActiveModules they developed new modules that capture a particular aspect of the biology, and, as usual, color the transcriptional change on top of that. The Methods is richly annotated and all stuff is open source.

The authors conclude with mostly bioinformatics conclusions. No new shocking new insights into Rett syndrome (yet, but unfortunately), but they indicate that by taking advantage of our interoperability approaches (e.g. the ELIXIR Recommended Interoperability Resource BridgeDb, using mappings from Ensembl, HMDB, ChEBI, and Wikidata) pathway resources can be integrated, allowing these approaches.

Mind you, each pathway, and regularly down to the gene, metabolite, and interaction level, the information is not just built in collaboration with research communities, curated, but also backed by literature: 22494 unique PubMed references of which almost 4000 unique to WikiPathways (i.e. not in Reactome).

Have fun!

## Monday, March 04, 2019

### New projects: RiskGONE and NanoSolveIT

This January two new Horizon 2020 projects started for me: RiskGone and NanoSolveIT. It kept me busy in the past few weeks, with the kick-off meeting of the latter task week in Athens. Both continue on previous work of the EU NanoSafety Cluster, and I'm excited to continue with research done during the eNanoMapper project.

NanoSolveIT
NanoSolveIT "aspires to introduce a ground-breaking in silico Integrated Approach to Testing and Assessment (IATA) for the environmental health and safety of Nanomaterials (NM), implemented through a decision support system packaged as both a stand-alone open software and via a Cloud platform."

I will be involved here in the knowledge infrastructure. Plenty of research there to be done around the representation of chemical composition of the nanomaterials, the structuring and consistency of ontologies to capture and integrate everything, how to capture our knowledge around the adverse outcome pathways, and how to use this all in predictive computation.

RiskGONE
"The focus of RiskGONE will be to produce nano-specific draft guidance documents for application to ENM RA; or, alternatively, to suggest ameliorations to OECD, ECHA, and ISO/CEN SOPs or guidelines. Rather than producing assays and methods ex novo, this will be achieved through Round Robin exercises and multimodal testing of OECD TGs and ECHA methods supporting the “Malta-project”, and on methods not yet considered by OECD." (from the CORDIS website)

Here our involvement will be around similar topics.

Oh, and like all new H2020 projects, FAIR and Open Data is central words.

## Sunday, February 17, 2019

### Browsing like it's 1990

Ruben Verborgh pointed me this nice CERN side project ("my particles are colliding"): browsing like it's 1990. This is what WikiPathways would have looked like back then:

### Comparing Research Journals Quality #2: FAIR metrics of journals

Henry Rzepa pointed me to this helpful CrossRef tool that shows publisher and journal level metrics for FAIRness (see also this post):
 FAIR metrics for the Journal of Cheminformatics.
The Journal of Cheminformatics is doing generally well. This is what FAIR metrics are about: they show you what you can improve. They show you how you can become a (better) open scientist. And our journal has a few attention points:
 J. Cheminform. does not do well with sending these bits of information to CrossRef.
It's nice to see we already score well on ORCIDs and funder identifiers. I am not sure why the abstracts are not included, and text mining URLs could point to something useful too, I guess. The license URL sounds a bit redundant, since all articles are CC-BY, but downstream aggregators should not guess this from a journal name (or ISSN), and I'd welcome this proper annotation too.

## Saturday, February 09, 2019

### Comparing Research Journals Quality #1: FAIRness of journal articles

 What a traditional research articlelooks like. Nice layout, hard toreuse the knowledge from.Image: CC BY-SA 4.0.
After Plan S was proposed, there finally was a community-wide discussion on the future of publishing. Not everyone is clearly speaking out if they want open access or not, but there's a start for more. Plan S aims to reform the current model. (Interestingly, the argument that not a lot of journals are currently "compliant" is sort of the point of the Plan.) One thing it does not want to reform, is the quality of the good journals (at least, I have not seen that as one of the principles). There are many aspects to the quality of a research journal. There are also many things that disguise themselves as aspects of quality but are not. This series discusses quality of a journal. We skip the trivial ones, like peer review, for now, because I honestly do not believe that the cOAlition S funders want worse peer review.

We start with FAIRness (doi:10.1038/sdata.2016.18). This falls, if you like, under the category of added value. FAIRness does not change the validness of the conclusions of an article, it just improves the rigor of the knowledge dissemination. To me, a quality journal is one that takes knowledge dissemination seriously. All journals have a heritage of being printed on paper, and most journals have been very slows in adopting innovative approaches. So, let's put down some requirements of the journal of 2020.

First the about the article itself:

• uses identifiers (DOI) at least at article level, but possibly also for figures and supplementary information
• provides data of an article (including citations)
• data is actively distributed (PubMed, Scopus, OpenCitations, etc)
• maximizes findability by supporting probably more than one open standard
• data can be accessed using open standards (HTTP, etc)
• data is archived (possibly replicated by others, like libraries)
• data is using open standards (RDF, XML, etc)
• data uses open ontologies (many open standards exist, see this preprint)
• uses linked data approaches (e.g. for citations)
• data is as complete as possible
• data is available under an Open Science compliant license
• data is uses modern and used community standards
Pretty straightforward. For author, title, journal, name, year, etc, most journals apply this. Of course, bigger publishers that invested in these aspects many moons ago can be compliant much easier, because they already were.

Second, what about the content of the article? There we start seeing huge differences.

• important concepts in the article are easily identified (e.g. with markup)
• important concepts use (compact) identifiers
Here, the important concepts are entities like cities, genes, metabolites, species, etc, etc. But also reference data sets, software, cited articles, etc. Some journals only use keywords, some journals have policies about use of identifiers for genes and proteins. Using identifiers for data and software is rare, sadly.

• articles can be retrieved by concept identifiers (via open, free standards)
• article-concept identifier links are archived
• table and figure data is annotated with concept identifiers
• table and figure data can be accessed in an automated way
Here we see a clear problem. Publishers have been actively fighting this for years, even to today. Text miners and projects like Europe PMC are stepping in, but severely hampered by copyright law and publishers not wishing to make exception.

• concept are describes common standards (many available)
• table and figure data is available as something like CSV, RDF
Currently, the only serious standard used by the majority of (STM?) journals are MeSH terms for keywords and perhaps CrossRef XML for citations. Table and figures are more than just a graphical representations. Some journals are experimenting with this.

• the content of the article has a clear licence, Open Science compliant
• the content is available with relevant standards of now
This is hard. These community standards are a moving target. For example, how we name concepts changes over time. But also identifiers themselves change over time. But a journal can be specific and accurate, which ensures that even 50 years from now, the context of the content can be determined. Of course, with proper Open Science approaches, translation to then modern community standards is simplified.

There are tons of references I can give here. If you really like these ideas, I recommend:
1. continue reading my blog with many, many pointers
2. read (and maybe sign) our Open Science Feedback to the Guidance on the Implementation of Plan S (doi:10.5281/zenodo.2560200), where many of these ideas are part of

## Tuesday, February 05, 2019

### Plan S: Less publications, but more quality, more reusable? Yes, please.

If you look at opinions published in scholarly journals (RSS feed, if you like to keep up), then Plan S is all 'bout the money (as Meja already tried to warn us):

No one wants puppies to die. Similarly, no one wants journals to die. But maybe we should. Well, the journals, not the puppies. I don't know, but it does make sense to me (at this very moment):

The past few decades has seen a significant growth of journals. And before hybrid journals were introduced, publishers tended to start new journals, rather than make journals Open Access. At the same time, the number of articles too has gone up significantly. In fact, the flood of literature is drowning researchers and this problem has been discussed for years. But if we have too much literature, should we not aim for less literature? And do it better instead?

Over the past 13 years I have blogged on many occasions about how we can make journals more reusable. And many open scientist can quote you Linus: "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow". In fact, just worded differently, any researcher will tell you exactly the same, which is why we do peer review.
But the problem here is the first two words: given enough.

What if we just started publishing half of what we do now? If we have an APC-business model, we have immediately halved(!) the publishing cost. We also save ourselves from a lot of peer-review work, reading of marginal articles.

And what if we just the time we freed up for actually making knowledge dissemination better? Make journals articles actually machine readable, put some RDF in them? What if we could reuse supplementary information. What if we could ask our smartphone to compare the claims of one article with that of another, just like we compare two smartphones. Oh, they have more data, but theirs has a smaller error margin. Oh, they tried it at that temperature, which seems to work better than in that other paper.

I have blogged about this topic for more than a decade now. I don't want to wait another 15 years for journal publications to evolve. I want some serious activity. I want Open Science in our Open Access.

This is one of my personal motives to our Open Science Feedback to cOAlition S, and I am happy that 40 people joined in the past 36 hours, from 12 countries. Please have a read, and please share it with others. Let your social network know why the current publishing system needs serious improvement and that Open Science has had the answer for years now.

Help our push and show your support to cOAlition S to trigger exactly this push for better scholarly publishing: https://docs.google.com/document/d/14GycQnHwjIQBQrtt6pyN-ZnRlX1n8chAtV72f0dLauU/edit?usp=sharing

## Sunday, February 03, 2019

### Plan S and the Open Science Community

Plan S is about Open Access. But Open Science is so much more and includes other aspects, like Open Data, Open Source, Open Standards. But like Publications have hijacked knowledge dissemination (think research assessment), we risk that Open Access is hijacking the Open Science ambition. If you find Open Science more important than Open Access, then this is for you.

cOAlition S is asking for feedback, and because I think Open Science is so much more, I want the Guidance on the Implementation of Plan S to have more attention for Open Science. I am submitting on Wednesday this Open Science Feedback on the Guidance on the Implementation of Plan S outlining 10 points how it can be improved to support Open Science better.

Please read the feedback document and if you agree, please join Jon Tennant and co-sign it using this form:

## Wednesday, January 30, 2019

### Plan S and the Preprint Servers

In no way I meant to compare Plan S to the hero Harry P....

Oh wait, but I am, and it's quite appropriate too. Harry was not a hero by himself; Harry was inevitable, he existed because of evil. Furthermore, Harry did not solve evil by himself. He needed Hermione (the scholars), he needed Ron (umm....), he needed Marcel (ummm....).  Likewise, evil has Voldemort (the impact factors), deatheathers (ummm....)... Okay, okay, let stop pushing the parallel before it gets embarrassing. Point is, Harry was insensitive, clumsy, in many ways naive. And so is Plan S. Harry did not want to have to fight Voldemort. But evil demanded Plan S, ummm, Harry to exist.

So, with the big Plan S event tomorrow in The Netherlands I am trying to organize my thoughts. We've seen wonderful discussions over the past month, which have highlighted the full setting in a lot of detail. Just this week, a nice overview of how learned societies do not make profit by making profit but spending that on important thing (doi:10.1073/pnas.1900359116 and draft blog analysis). Neither provide all the details, partly because this publishing world is not fully transparent.

Another wonderful aspect of the effect of Plan S is that people seriously talk about Open Science. Many against the current Plan S still find Open Science important, and the details of the arguments are exciting and complex. I understand most of the concerns, tho I do not believe all are realistic. For example, I honestly do not believe that researchers would turn their (financial) back at their learned societies if they moved to a full OA model (an actual argument I have heard). But then again, I'm naive myself.
Preprint servers
And people come with suggestions. Sadly, we have not seen enough of them since we started discussion Open Access, now almost 20 years ago. Fairly, better late then never, but I wish people realized that Harry was desperate in his last year at Hogwarts and someone had to do it. All other students at Hogwarts kept quite (in movie 7, you can hear some students suggest alternatives to the final battle...)

Now, last week Plan U suggests that preprint servers provide a better solution. I disagree. The current Plan U is too risky. I tweeted some considerations yesterday, which I'll put below. Let me put up front, I like preprint servers, see the 21st tweet.
1. scholars discussing #Plan_S would do good to study the history of source code... that too started with free software ("shareware") but people quickly realized that did not work, and the community moved to #opensource 1/n
2. Ignoring that free access is not enough and that you need open licenses is important: learn from history, don't make the same mistakes again. CC-BY-ND is not an proper open license, no license even worse. 2/n
3. no, think about the role of preprints. First, the name preprint already makes clear it is not the same as a print. I don't care about the journal formatting, but I do care about the last edits. 3/n
4. @jbrittholbrook used that argument in favor of ND clauses: yes, it *is* essential that we know that the version we read is accurate. Versioning is essential, changelogs even more. Is the latest preprint identical (except formatting)? With/-out ND clauses, this is critical. 4/n
5. currently, without much effort and therefore high cost, I cannot reliably determine of a preprint version is identical (except formatting) as the published version. Those last changes are essential: that's the added value of the journal editorial role. 5/n
6. but let's assume this gets solved (repeated errors by commercial publishers do not bode well). How about the #openscience rights (reuse, modify, reshare)? Many preprints do not require an open license. Without an open license it's merely shareware. 6/n
7. Free reads (also temp free by journals) is nice, accept it's only thinking about now, not tomorrow. It's thinking only about yourself, not others. 7/n
8. With a shareware article you are not allowed to share with your students. They need to download that themselves (fair, doable). You cannot include it in your coursepack. This is what reuse is about. 8/n
9. With a shareware article you are not allowed do change it. No change of format (to match your coursepack), no text-mining, no data extraction., etc. This is what the right to modify is about. 9/n
10. With a shareware article you are not allowed to redistribute it. I already mentioned courseware, but libraries are affected by this. But resharing is also about changing your improved version. 10/n
11. Resharing after removal of that glaring typo. After rewriting German into English. Old-English into modern English. After fixing this number typo in that table that caused you time to figure out what the hell the authors were thinking (true story). 11/n
12. These three core #openscience right (reuse, modify, reshare) are essential to science. Just think what would happen if you could not use a new theory/method published? Would you accept that? 12/n
13. My guess is: No, but you do when it comes to articles. Why? Is money more important that the essence of doing science? Are society activities more important that these basic things? I hope not. 13/n
14. this is not a discussion of the now. This was 1947 14/n:
15. of course, one can argue that if you can read the paper, you have all the access you need. But we know this is false. Text mining is essential. Reformatting, data extraction, is essential. 15/n
16. We now spend millions of extracting knowledge from articles, bc we decided a PDF was the proper way to share knowledge. Disallowing that makes it even more expensive. Money that could be spend on actual research. 16/n
17. now back to preprints and preprints as a replacement to openaccess articles. I think you see where I am going. 17/n
18.
1. a preprint without a proper license is not #openscience and does not optimally help raise the level of science.
2. a preprint not identical (except formatting) to the published version, is not a replacement of the published version 18/n
19. unfortunately, many journal-preprint server combinations do not simply not guarantee a way forward. That must be solved and currently is not an alternative to #Plan_S. Current preprint servers have a different purpose: release soon. 19/n
20. preprints have many (better) alternatives (open notebook science, #opensource, #etc, etc), but they can be a step forward towards #openscience, but if, and only if, they follow the basics of doing (open) science 20/n
21. I'll wrap up this thread with linking to my first preprint, of Aug 2000: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2969350 … It's part of the Chemistry Preprint Server (CPS) archive, hosted by Elsevier. More about CPS in #Scholia: https://tools.wmflabs.org/scholia/topic/Q50123525 … 21/21

## Sunday, January 20, 2019

### Updated HMDB identifier scheme #2: Wikidata updated

About a year ago the HMDB changed there identifier scheme: they added two digits to accommodate for more metabolites. They basically ran out of identifiers. This weekend I updated the HMDB identifiers in Wikidata, so that they are all in the new format, removing a lot of secondary (old) identifiers. The process was simple, combining Bioclipse, the Wikidata Query Service, and QuickStatements:

1. use SPARQL to find all HMDB identifiers of length 9
2. make QuickStatements to remove the old identifier and add the new identifier
3. run the QuickStatements
 QuickStatements website with the first 10 statements to update theHMDB identifiers for 5 Wikidata compounds.
I ran the statements in batches, allowing me to keep track of the progress. Some reflection: there was quite a bit of references on the statements that got lost. The previous HMDB identifiers were often sourced from ChEBI. But the new identifiers do not come from there, they're sourced from Wikidata and adding "stated in" "Wikidata" did not make sense to me. Another thought is that it would have been nice to combine the removal and addition in one edit, but since they are executed right after each other, the version control will keep them together anyway.

The Bioclipse script can be found here.

## Sunday, January 13, 2019

### cOAlition S is requesting feedback

Plan S (Wikipedia, Scholia) is here to stay. The pros and cons are still being explored, but with the list of participants and endorsements still growing (the latest endorsement comes from the African Academy of Sciences), it seems unlikely the ten principles will be disregarded. The implementation, however, may still change. I'm still looking forward to hearing more about the alleged improper lobbying and CoI of Frontiers. I have some thoughts and observations about Frontiers myself.

Meanwhile, one aspect Plan S highlights are the huge differences in politics between European countries. An ongoing debate in Germany about whether scholars have a legal unlimited freedom to publish where they want (ethical or not) is yet unsettled, I think. And Norway did not seem to have discussed Open Access publishing much yet, and it has been suggested that the sudden introduction of Plan S may be unlawful.

The situation in The Netherlands regarding the latter is different, in that Plan S here naturally follows from a direction chosen by the Dutch government some years ago. This resulted in a formal advice of the Dutch Presidency, the Amsterdam Call for Action on Open Science (2016) and governmental policies based on that. During the Presidency a formal meeting was organized in, no surprise, Amsterdam, where a draft was presented and formally discussed with stakeholders. Individual researchers had been invited, and with some luck my reply to the invitation was accepted and I joined the meeting.

 My main comment on the draft Call.
I cannot say the meeting left a lot of room for improvement, and the draft was shared with participants only very shortly before the meeting. I stressed the importance of three core (user) rights of Open Science: reuse, modify, redistribute, but while some other points were picked up (I don't think the organizers had a lot of room, as it would be signed on the spot and presented to the European Union), this point did not get picked up.

Now, Plan S also fails to mention these rights, which I consider a serious flaw. Instead, they choose to focus on a specific implementation of those three rights. This is counter normal procedures in European politics or at least Dutch European politics, where things are generally kept vague to be refined later.

Of course, the discussions on Open Science did not start early 2016. Dutch politics is not that fast. One aspect of the Dutch discussion has been that the focus has been too much on the cost of open access publishing, and this leaks into Plan S, is my impression. But Dutch research institutes (particularly via their libraries) have brought up the unsustainable situation of journal subscriptions for quite a bit longer. I seem to remember the discussion of big package deals when I was a student in the nineties, a time where individual researchers and researchers still have "personal" subscriptions. I used to read JCIM (JCICS at the time) at the CAOS/CAMM (see doi:10.1007/978-3-642-74373-3_51). Yes, the need for this reform has been discussed for at least 20 years in The Netherlands.

For me, as a Dutch researcher, Plan S is not radical nor a surprise (*): it is a natural consequence of publishers resisting the needed reforms that have been started years ago, and upon which subscription deals between the Dutch universities and publishers have been based. With less than two years to go, the ambition set out by the Dutch government to be 100% Open Access by 2020 was and is far away (unless there is some radical change to an exponential increase in these last months). So, if the Dutch government wants to keep its political promise, a radical change was needed. The only surprise (hence the *) is, perhaps, that they wanted to keep their promise.

Since the Amsterdam Call, the Dutch government further involved Dutch researchers, via the National Platform Open Science (NPOS), where various researcher organizations are actively involved (postdoc network, VSNU, etc, etc). NPOS has been underfunded and the involvement of researchers could have been a lot better.

It must also be mentioned that Plan S, as far as I know, has not been discussed at this level of NPOS. I expect it did get discussed by the participating NPOS partners (which included NWO). This is not surprising to me either, though I would very much appreciate a weaker hierarchy. But that hierarchy is very Dutch, and even researchers indicate to not have time for all those discussion, so things are self-organized in representing organizations: it seems the general Dutch consensus was (mind you, I'm an ECR, I did not design this, and this approach is not uncontroversial, as #WOinActie makes clear) that representation is the best way forward. And as far as I can see, this is how Plan S came about. But the discussions around Plan S make clear that a lot of researchers feel left out. Understandably, but that is the Dutch academic culture to blame, not the Dutch funders: individual researchers rarely get asked for feedback on national guidance/policy documents. At the same time, that does not invalidate their concerns either, of course.

So, while the above may not have said it, I like what cOAlition is attempting to do: the publishing system is breaking down and must be fixed and only few publishers are making a serious effort (at a time where some publishers make huge profits). The discussion has been nasty on both sides. Insinuations that gold Open Access journals are not interested in quality are hurtful (remember, I'm editor-in-chief of such a journal, and I work overtime to ensure the highest standards for our articles, but know the limitations of publication platforms (see this post) and peer review, despite the journal having access to very qualified researcher pool).

Being an academic, you need holiday to sit down and do something you care about but that is not paid for. For me, commenting on Plan S, or contributing as critical observer to the NPOS, is one of that. Even finding time for that interview about Plan S in ScienceGuide has been hard.

But now that the deadline for the call by cOAlition S for feedback is nearing, it's time to get my points written up. I decided to use Hypothes.is for this (yes, I have not used it enough for someone who joined it in 2012...):

I started with the Too Risky? Open Letter, followed with commenting on Plan S. The fact that I do not like at all how the Open Letter was formulated (see my comments; the letter has a number of fallacies), does not mean I like Plan S as it is (which some seem to assume). These annotations looks like this and can be read with and without a browser plugin:

There is plenty more to annotate, including the letter of support of the principles (see doi:10.1038/d41586-018-07632-2). I signed this letter: while I do not agree with the wording of all principles, putting it into context of the Dutch situation, their intentions make a lot of sense. But I have to say, I may have been rushed into signing it, with the Too Risky? using various fallacies and suggesting it represents researchers in general (the letter does not say that literally, neither do they make it clear to just speak on behalf of the signers, causing a lot of press media to misrepresent the letter). The letter sketches a doom scenario and is worded what the open source community would refer to as FUD: fear, uncertainty, and doubt.

Effectively what happened is that this Too Risky? letter has caused (for me), is how hard some serious effort is needed to make the required changes. Every change has consequences. One team focuses on the positive consequences, another team focuses on the negative consequences.

I do not know what Plan S will bring us. My name is not Nostradamus (or this Dutch reference). I do know the risks of the current system. Those are easily named and have been apparent for at least two decades. Too Risky? The current system has already done a lot of harm and is proven risky. I am happy that Dutch funders dare to invest in the future. Plan S may not be the right option, and I am looking forward to alternative solutions that ensure the three rights of Open Science (reuse, modify, redistribute). People have freedom to choice if they want to practice Open Science or not. That freedom is, in The Netherlands in recent times, limited by several things, but the limitation that the Dutch national funders wants research to benefit Dutch society is in line with Dutch political climate of the past decade (think Nationale Wetenschapsagenda).